One Stop Trans Brain Research List

The following list of links is to demonstrate that there is a very large body of evidence pointing to brain differences beginning in utero as the fundamental cause of most instances of transexuality. Part of the resistance to the brain-sex theory comes directly from Dr. Anne Lawrence who critiqued two early studies in this area (clear back in 2002) but who has a personal vested interest in arguing a different basis as she has based her entire career on that different basis. This list is not even close to comprehensive.


General Neurobiological Studies, Abstracts, Articles, and Commentary
Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden
Variants of Gender Differentiation in Somatic Disorders of Sex Development: Recommendations for Version 7 of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health’s Standards of Care
Androgens and the evolution of male gender identity among male pseudo-hermaphrodites with 5-alpha reductase deficiency
On the quest for a biomechanism of transsexualism: Is there a role for BDNF?
Transgender Science: How Might It Shape the Way We Think about Transgender Rights
A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity
Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism.
White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A diffusion tensor imaging study.
White matter microstructure in transsexuals and controls investigated by diffusion tensor imaging
The microstructure of white matter in male to female transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A DTI study.
A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality.
Sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in humans may extend into adulthood.
Specific cerebral activation due to visual erotic stimuli in male-to-female transsexuals compared with male and female controls: an fMRI study.
Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.
Intersex, brain differences, and the transgender tipping point
Sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain: contributions of sex chromosome genes
Update on the Biology of Transgender Identity
Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain
Cortical activation during mental rotation in male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals under hormonal treatment.
Gender Orientation: IS Conditions Within The TS Brain
Increased Cortical Thickness in Male-to-Female Transsexualism
Prenatal Exposure to Female Hormones: Effect on Psychosexual Development in Boys
Sexual differentiation of human behavior: Effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology,
Brief Report: Female-To-Male Transsexual People and Autistic Traits
Dr V. Drantz Lecture: Myth & Science of Sexuality
Male–to–female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus
Discordant Sexual Identity in Some Genetic Males with Cloacal Exstrophy Assigned to Female Sex at Birth
The role of androgen receptors in the masculinization of brain and behavior: what we’ve learned from the testicular feminization mutation.
Regional cerebral blood flow changes in female to male gender identity disorder.
Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation
“Prenatal hormones versus postnatal socialization by parents as determinants of male-typical toy play in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia”
Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes.
Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation
Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure
Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones
Dichotic Listening, Handedness, Brain Organization and Transsexuality
Biased-Interaction Theory of Psychosexual Development: “How Does One Know if One is Male or Female?”
Increased Cortical Thickness in Male-to-Female Transsexualism
Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls.
Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol(DES) in males and gender-related disorders:results from a 5-year study
Chapter 5 of The Transsexual Phenomenon
Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys
Brain gender identity
Current Thinking on the Etiology of Gender Dysphoria
Gender Differences in Human Brain: A Review
Begging the Question: Autism in Trans Men
Largest Study to Date: Transgender Hormone Treatment Safe
Hormone Therapy and Venous Thromboembolism Among Post-Menopausal Women
Transsexual Gene Link Identified
Transgender: Evidence on the biological nature of gender identity
Networks of the brain reflect the individual gender identity
Transsexual differences caught on brain scan
Brain Mapping Gender Identity: What Makes A Boy A Girl?
Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus
The (bi)sexual brain: Science & Society Series on Sex and Science
Transsexual gene link identified
The catastrophically bad New York Times op-ed on transgender research, debunked
Charlie Rose: The Brain Series – Gender Identity (an hour long video)
Think Like A Man: Testosterone Treatment Allows Transgender Men To Think And Talk Like A Man
(Note that the above article title is problematic in that it implies trans men are not men so only talk “like” men. But the hormonal research is interesting.)
(Patho)physiology of cross-sex hormone administration to transsexual people: the potential impact of male–female genetic differences
Homosexuality may be caused by chemical modifications to DNA This is important because it ties back again to hormonal in utero differences driving white matter brain structure differences.
High-Dose Testosterone Treatment Increases Serotonin Transporter Binding in Transgender People
Sex Hormones Administered During Sex Reassignment Change Brain Chemistry, Physical Characteristics
The brains of men and women aren’t really that different, study finds – This study actually reinforces the neurobiological understanding of being transgender. I explain this here, in New Brain Study Reinforces Neurobiological Explanation of Being Transgender
Sex biology redefined: Genes don’t indicate binary sexes
A Systematic Review of the Effects of Hormone Therapy on Psychological Functioning and Quality of Life in Transgender Individuals
Androgen Receptor Repeat Length Polymorphism Associated with Male-to-Female Transsexualism
Blurred lines: Human sex chromosome swapping occurs more often than previously thought
Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment
Sex isn’t chromosomes: the story of a century of misconceptions about X & Y
Removing transgender identity from the classification of mental disorders: a Mexican field study for ICD-11 (Note that this study shows that transgender mental health issues are not because we are transgender, but because people are cruel and inhumane to transgender people generally, resulting in widespread social rejection.)
Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. “Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.”
Is There Something Unique about the Transgender Brain? Imaging studies and other research suggest that there is a biological basis for transgender identity
Study shows that trans women who have access to GCS and FFS have quality of life and suicide rates comparable to the general population.
2017 Chinese Transgender Population General Survey Report
Familial Sex Reversal This is an interesting study about how widely variant sex genetics truly is.

Miscellaneous and Useful Documents For Trans Individuals

For convenience, the DSM-5 clearly states, gender dysphoria is not a mental disorder.

Gender Dysphoria Explanation for DSM-5

The following link helps expose why the autogynephelia diagnosis is pure garbage, which means Bailey, Blanchard, etc., are basically full of nonsense. (Because women get aroused thinking of themselves as women too.)

Autogynephilia in women.

Studies, Articles, and Commentary About Trans Children’s Sense of Gender Identity
Gender Cognition in Transgender Children
Update: Gender Cognition in Transgender Children
Transgender Kids Show Consistent Gender Identity Across Measures
This Is What Happens To Transgender Kids Who Delay Puberty (Study next line below)
Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment
Transgender teens become happy, healthy young adults
Allowing Transgender Youth To Transition Improves Their Mental Health, Study Finds
Transgender kids: Painful quest to be who they are
Center For Excellence for Transgender Health: Youth: Special Considerations
Mom Fights for Controversial Medicine for Transgender Youth
Free to be themselves
Perth Year 3 student in transgender row after school cross country run
“80 percent change back”
A New Study About Transgender Kids Proves Something Majorly Important
STUDY: Transgender Kids Are Not ‘Confused’ About Their Gender Identities
Study: Trans kid’s gender implicit; govt report condemns conversion therapy
Good Outcomes With Early Transition in Transgender Youth

9 thoughts on “One Stop Trans Brain Research List

    • There is a lot of this information and I finally got tired of those resisting the science saying that there were only a “few” such studies. This list isn’t even complete, not by a long shot. The brain theory of being transgender is pretty much established now and the only holdouts are TERFs, who don’t want to admit a biological component to gender, and those people who support Dr. Anne Lawrence whose personal reputation is vested in a non-biological origin of transgender behavior.

    • It’s not exhaustive, but it is extensive. And I am always open to more such studies. As one negative nellie I know keeps saying, “Well, it’s not proven!” Sure. I’m not sure why a trans woman is so set against there being a medical explanation for being trans but I know a few who appear to love to jump up and down singing “It’s not proven!” as if that means anything. Strictly speaking, quantum mechanics won’t ever be proven either, or general or special relativity. That’s how science works. But the overwhelming evidence is now so huge that the APA, the AMA, and ACP all agree that being trans has a medical basis, that this medical basis is neurobiological, and that it appears to originate in the womb between the 8th and 24th weeks of pregnancy (especially the 8th to 16th weeks) due to hormonal ratios that are not typical for that particular sex of fetus. That’s not proof, but it is almost universal consensus by the major medical organizations in the United States, and other countries are the same, with consensus in many of them as well. And while that’s not proof of the theory, there is no other major theory about being trans that has any laboratory biological evidence for it at all. All the remaining theories are all psychobabble handwaving, often defended by the very people who created that particular psychobabble theory and for which, even decades later, they have no evidence to support.

  1. *
    Thank you for all your lists of referrals and studies.

    A walk through any medical library will provide several journals filled with published research documenting the same.

    Simply put – gender identity fixes before the end of the 2nd month of gestation whereas sexual morphology does not occur until the end of the 3rd month. Thus,

    – (1) a female-identified brain can have a male body and

    – (2) a male-identified brain can have a female body.

    • Yes, that’s the point – this is the current state of medical science and research today, and anyone arguing otherwise is either ignorant of the current research and medical treatments or pushing an anti-transgender agenda. It’s that simple.

  2. Pingback: Yet Another Reply To Those Who Continue to Demean Transgender People | Liz - Day By Day

  3. Pingback: Making the Case: Part 10 | the girl inside

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